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Fire Suppression Solution for New Energy Vehicles, Batteries and Energy Storage Systems

September 6, 2022

PREFACE DESCRIPTION

In recent years, new energy vehicles using power lithium batteries often have spontaneous combustion, explosion and other accidents, makes people have to re-examine the safety of lithium batteries. From the analysis of internal and external environmental factors, power lithium batteries. are subject to high temperature, over charge, over discharge, high current charging, short circuit, extrusion, puncture and other effects; causes a short circuit inside the battery, the temperature sises rapidly, the heat accumulation rate is higher than the diffusion rate, and then a fire occurs.

Once a fire occurs, its spread is very fast, therefore, how to detect, control and prevent the re-ignition of the lithium battery fire in the early stage, so as to avoid bigger loss of property and life, is the goal of the application of this system.

The power battery will generate heat during normal operation, to ensure absolute safety, there must be reliable technology to ensure that its heating is controllable.

First is by detecting early warning and manual intervention, if the early warning function fails, an efficient fire suppression device must be installed to suppress fire at its early stage.

NEW ENERGY LITHIUM BATTERY FIRE CHARACTERISTICS AND SOLUTIONS

The main cause of thermal runaway of lithium batteries

There are mainly the following factors cause lithium-ion battery fire:

  • External heating.
  • Battery overcharge.
  • Battery over discharge.
  • Super current power charging.
  • External short circuit.
  • Battery aging.
  • Foreign body puncture.
  • Collided and squeezed by other objects.

Characteristic Analysis of Lithium Battery Fire

Lithium iron phosphate system battery can be identified as a composite fire dominated by class C, E and B fires.

  • Mainly combustible gas (Class C) fire.
  • The battery is a charged device and can be used as an electric fire (Class E).
  • If there is electrolyte leakage, it can also be identified as liquid fire (Class B).
  • A small amount of positive and negative materials such as copper and aluminum and a small amount of metal lithium participate in the combustion, it belongs to metal fire (Class D).

Ternary lithium system battery can be identified as a composite fire dominated by Class C and E fires.

PRODUCT DESIGN ORIENTATION OF LITHIUM BATTERY FIRE

  • Light in size and weight. the space in the battery pack is very limited, the size of the fire extinguishing device shall be as small as possible and shall not occupy too much space, the weight should be light.
  • The agent needs higher fire extinguishing efficiency. Aerosol agent shall have high efficiency performance, to achieve maximum fire extinguishing effect with minimum dose.
  • Simple installation and maintenance. The device can be quickly installed by fixing bolts, easy to maintenance.
  • Compound fire suppression. The device can effectively suppress type A, B, C, D (part) and E compound fires.
  • Various types of application. The device shall be applicable to different types of lithium batteries such as lithium-ion phosphate, lithium ternary, lithium titanate, lithium manganate.
  • Prevent secondary after-combustion. The agent can be submerged in the space for a long time, continuous action to prevent combustion again.
  • Rapidly reduce the temperature. The agent can quickly reduce the temperature in the battery pack, so as to suppress thermal runaway.
  • Service life circle. The battery pack is not often opened for maintenance, therefore, the fire extinguishing device should have a long service life.

SYSTEM STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION

A complete new energy fire fighting system generally consists of the following components:

  • Battery pack fire extinguishing device.
  • Single fire alarm control system (Heat detection, gas detection and smoke detection).
  • Vehicle BMS system.
  • Driver and passenger console (monitoring information display, audible and visual alarm signal and abort switch etc).

The new energy lithium battery fire alarm and fire suppression system refers to the bus type battery box dedicated automatic fire protection system, it is an intelligent system for fire prevention and control inside the battery box of electric vehicles, through scientific and systematic analysis and research on thermal runaway and fire characteristics of power lithium battery. It is mainly composed of a single power battery fire detection device and a lithium battery pack high-efficiency fire extinguishing device.

The system comprehensively analyzes and judges the fire by monitoring the smoke, toxic and flammable gases, temperature changes and other date in each power battery box, automatic or manual to suppress fire, and through CAN bus/4G/5G networking communication, to achieve the purpose of early fire detection at its initial stage, to protect the safety of electric vehicles and drivers and passengers to the maximum extent.

Our company’s lithium-ion style aerosol fire extinguisher is installed inside the power battery, the sensors integrated in the module monitor and collect the data and changes of gas, smoke and temperature inside the battery box in real time, the collected date is analyzed and processed by a proprietary algorithm and displayed on the main control device through CAN bus ( or other communication methods).

If there is thermal runaway of the lithium battery pack in the battery box, the sensor sensing characteristic parameters of the single fire suppression device will change. through the comparison of fire models, the degree of fire danger can be quickly determined, and an alarm signal for the operator can be sent to the system.

when a fire occurs, the single fire detection and control device can automatically start the fire extinguishing device, providing valuable time for emergency escape for drivers and passengers.

For the electrical equipment compartment of the new energy bus, efficient fire suppression devices can be used for total flooding protection to comprehensively improve the fire safety level of the whole vehicle.

NEW ENERGY EXTENSION PRODUCT-CHARGING PILES IN THE CHARGING FIELD

According to statistics, more than 70% of sudden fires of new energy vehicles occur in the charging stage, on the one hand, due to overcharge and other factors, it is easy to cause sudden fire of vehicles; on the other hand, due to the requirements of charging speed, high voltage and large current are easy to cause heating of charging facilities, which will cause fire of vehicles. Therefore, fire protection of charging facilities is needed and necessary.

The installation of high-efficiency fire suppression devices in the cabinets of each charging pile can effectively deal with the sudden fire in the internal facilities of the charging pile and prevent the fire from causing associated losses to the vehicles at the first time.
Hereby Lithium-ion Battery Aerosol is recommended.

So we shall install efficient fire suppression devices in other electrical and communication facilities cabinets in the charging station to prevent sudden electrical fires, and the relevant duty and maintenance personnel at the charging station shall e equipped with portable aerosol fire extinguishers to deal with emergencies.

NEW ENERGY EXTENSION PRODUCT-ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM IN ENERGY STORAGE FIELD

New energy lithium battery technology development and utilization requirements have led to more lithium battery utilization fields, such as energy storage and UPS. In the field of energy storage, energy storage can cover every link from photovoltaic and wind power generation to power transmission and distribution, and then to power consumption.

In view of the safety risks of the energy storage system, we propose a fire-fighting systematic solution combining the protection of energy storage stations, energy storage cabinets, battery cabinets and battery boxes.

For any new information on new energy fire protection, battery fire protection and charging pile suppression, please feel free to contact our technicians or sales for deeply communicate and discuss.

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